, The European mink is listed by the IUCN as Critically Endangered due to an ongoing reduction in numbers, having been calculated as declining more than 50% over the past three generations and expected to decline at a rate exceeding 80% over the next three generations. American mink has also been introduced in South America, parts of Europe, and portions of Asia. Following outbreaks of the virus on mink farms in Europe and the United States, Oregon has now reported an … White marks can be seen on the chin, throat and chest. , The decline of European crayfish has been proposed as a factor in the drop in mink numbers, as minks are notably absent in the eastern side of the Urals, where crayfish are also absent. A litter numbers between two and seven, and usually is about four or five. Diet European Mink are opportunistic predators and they mainly feed on rats, rabbits, birds, fish, frogs and crayfish. It is able to run along stream beds, and stay underwater for one to two minutes. Although land improvement and river dredging certainly resulted in population decreases and fragmentation, in areas which still maintain suitable river ecosystems, such as Poland, Hungary, the former Czechoslovakia, Finland and Russia, the decline preceded the change in wetland habitats, and may have been caused by extensive agricultural development. The European mink (Mustela lutreola) and the American mink (Neovison vison) are both valued for their luxurious fur. Accidental deaths due to pest control trapping and poisoning occur, as well as vehicle collisions, particularly frequent in the west of this species’ range. The European Bison, also called the ‘Wisent’, is the largest land mammal of the continent of Europe.Often confused with the American Bison, the population of the wisents has got dramatically low in the past few decades, which is mainly because of human predation.In 1996, IUCN declared this species as ‘endangered’. According to the IUCN Red List, the Russian population of European mink has been estimated at about 20,000 individuals; Spain holds near 500 individuals; in Romania - 1,000-1,500 individuals; Estonia - fewer than 100 individuals on Hiiumaa Island. They … The next largest European mink fur producers were Poland (7.8 million) and the Netherlands (5.5 million). The European mink is one of the most rare and endangered mammals existing in whole Europe and in Ukraine. One of the most endangered carnivores in Europe – their range is only 5% of the original. Interesting Mink Facts: Mink can reach 15 to 28 inches in length and weigh between 16 and 56 ounces. In the EU, over 41 million mink were killed for fur production in 2014. , The European mink is mostly restricted to Europe. , The American mink was introduced and released in Europe during the 1920s-1930s.  The European mink's skull is much less specialised than the American species' in the direction of carnivory, bearing more infantile features, such as a weaker dentition and less strongly developed projections. fulva (Kerr, 1792) In Finland, annual mink catches reached 3000 specimens in the 1920s. It is similar in colour to the American mink, but is slightly smaller and has a less specialized skull. Around dusk and before sunrise are their most active times. Data from the 1990s indicate the European mink has disappeared from the northern half of this previous range. There are two species referred to as "mink": the American mink and the European mink; The mink we have in Britain are not native. Share. Phylogeny, Evolutionary History and Taxonomy of the Mustelidae based on Sequences of the Cytochrome b Gene and a Complex Repetitive Flanking Region. In the wild, mink are small, discreet, and most often nocturnal, and they live in close proximity to water. The European mink (Mustela lutreola) is a semi-aquatic mustalid that is somewhat small in size: smaller than a marten and larger than a weasel. Globally, during the 2013/14 fur auction season, 87.2 million mink pelts were produced at a value of over 3.7 billion Euros. 100 years ago this mink species occurred throughout the continent of Europe, but populations of them have declined severely and it is now either extinct or vastly reduced in most of the range it inhabited formerly. National The European mink is listed on the terrestrial mammal species protected throughout the French territory.  The European mink is reportedly less efficient than the American species underwater. A polecat-mink hybrid has a poorly defined facial mask, yellow fur on the ears, grey-yellow underfur and long, dark brown guard hairs.  The European mink occurs primarily by forest streams unlikely to freeze in winter. It was also listed as a Endangered species into the National Red Book of Ukraine. Fish are an important food source in floodlands, with cases being known of European minks catching fish weighing 1–1.2 kg (2.2–2.6 lb). The core of their range was in the Tver Region, though they began to decline there by the 1990s, which was worsened by a colonisation of the area by the American mink. European The European mink is listed as a priority species of Community interest in Annex II of the Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC. , Polecat-mink hybrids are termed khor'-tumak by furriers and khonorik by fanciers. , Habitat-related declines of European mink numbers may have started during the Little Ice Age, which was further aggravated by human activity. These little carnivores are semiaquatic, and spend much of their hunting time in the water. The decline of European mink numbers in Ukraine began in the late 1950s, with now only a few small and isolated populations being reported in the upper courses of the Ukrainian Carpathian rivers.  The majority of polecat-mink hybrids have skulls bearing greater similarities to those of polecats than to minks. Because of this, there are farms that raise minks to harvest their fur.Additional resources 1. The European mink (Mustela lutreola), also known as the Russian mink and Eurasian mink, is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to Europe. The American mink is less dependent on wetland habitats than the European mink and is 20-40% larger. 2. This article is only an excerpt. The summer fur is somewhat shorter, coarser and less dense than the winter fur, though the differences are much less than in purely terrestrial mustelids. It occurs from sea level to 1,120 m (1,220 yd). https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=European_mink&oldid=993072267, IUCN Red List critically endangered species, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2005, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Mink are small members of the weasel, or Mustelidae, family.Otters, ferrets, martens, badgers, and wolverines are also members of the Mustelidae family, and distantly related to minks. The fur is normally a very dark brown with a small band of white around the mouth and sometimes on the throat; this marking can assist in identification but it is by no means certain. The tail tip is black and the underfur is dark bluish-grey. wyborgensis (Barrett-Hamilton, 1904), budina (Matschie, 1912) Mink have proven to be particularly susceptible to the coronavirus. Tail length is 153–190 mm (6.0–7.5 in) in males and 150–180 mm (5.9–7.1 in). Currently, Romanian mink populations are confined to the Danube Delta. American minks are larger than European minks. Weaning takes place at about 10 weeks, when they begin tracking and catching prey. Read More. China accounts for around 40% of mink pelt production, with around 35 million in 2014. At birth, kits weigh about 6.5 grams (0.23 oz), and grow rapidly, trebling their weight 10 days after birth. Many people will remember these dramatic events for the sheer numbers of mink involved. There are two extant species referred to … , The European mink has both a permanent burrow and temporary shelters. Over the last 150 years, though, it has severely declined by more than 90% and been extirpated or greatly reduced over most of its former range. The next largest European mink fur producers were Poland (7.8 million) and the Netherlands (5.5 million). But it was much larger. Populations of this species have suffered a series of commercial and ecological threats.  The first captive polecat-mink hybrid was created in 1978 by Soviet zoologist Dr. Dmitry Ternovsky of Novosibirsk. The former is used all year except during floods, and is located no more than 6–10 m (6.6–10.9 yd) from the water's edge. The young can open their eyes at 4 weeks and their teeth appear within 15-17 days, being replaced with adult teeth at 60-72 days. The limbs are short, with relatively well-developed membranes between the digits, particularly on the hind feet. Davidson, A., Griffith, H. I., Brookes, R. C., Maran, T., MacDonald, D. W., Sidorovich, V. E., Kitchener, A. C., Irizar, I., Villate, I., Gonzales-Esteban, J., Cena, A., Moya, I. and Palazon Minano, S. 2000. Cool Facts: European Minks are closely related to the European Pole Cats and Siberian Weasels; They are declining steadily in their native range. This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 17:19. One species of mink lives in North America; the other lives in Europe. It survives only in small populations in regions of Eastern Europe (Romania, Russian Federation, Ukraine) and Spain and France. The core population of the European mink EEP program in Species Conservation Construction Research Lab at Tallinn Zoo should be increased up to 200 individuals. European Minks have a wide diet of smaller animals. The European mink (Mustela lutreola) is a critically endangered species and one of the most at-risk small mammals in Europe.Loss of habitat, uncontrolled hunting, and, most importantly, the invasion of the American mink, a dominant competitive species, are some of the contributing factors for their disappearance. Fur colour is evenly distributed over the whole body, though in a few cases, the belly is a bit lighter than the upper parts.  Twenty-seven helminth species are recorded to infest the European mink, consisting of 14 trematodes, two cestodes and 11 nematodes. They do have some white around their face, especially their lips and chin, and sometimes you might see them with white spots on their chest or stomach. 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